Coxsackievirus is in the picorna family and is a (+) ssRNA, nonenveloped virus.
January 18, 2011
This paper explores the oncolytic potential of Coxsackieviruses A13, A15, and A18. Oncolytic virotherapy works because the specificity of lytic viral infection can be used to selectively kill malignant cells while leaving normal host cells intact.
This study looks at Malignant melanoma, which affects the skin cells responsible for pigment. To find these cells, microbiologists have identified a cell surface molecule, ICAM-1, that is overexpressed in cancerous cells. Biologists use ICAM-1 as a marker in order to understand the progression and metastasis of the cancer.
To help virotherapy be more successful, the strategy of using a subset of Coxsackieviruses that are unrelated but still recognize the receptor is used. It concluded that Coxsackieviruses A13, CVA15 and CVA18 have high potential for cancer therapy because their entry receptor is already expressed in abundance on the surface of affected cells.
Au, G., Beagley, L., Haley, E., Barry, D. and Shafren, D. Oncolysis of malignant human melanoma tumors by Coxsackieviruses A13, A15 and A18. Virology Journal. 8:22, doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-22.